The ITPGRFA seeks to protect farmers’ rights through equitable benefit-sharing from the use of farmers’ crop varieties. It recognises the enormous contribution that indigenous and local communities and farmers have made to the conservation and development of crop genetic resources. Yet the ability of farmers to continue this role is seriously threatened - not only by a lack of benefit-sharing, but by a lack of secure rights to land and genetic resources and policies that promote industrial agriculture and monocultures. This paper argues for a broad approach to the protection of farmers rights, which goes beyond benefit-sharing, to include protection of farmers' customary rights over genetic resources and associated landscapes, cultural values and customary laws, on which the continued conservation and improvement of crops by farmers depends. It draws on research by International Institute for Environment and Development and partners in Peru, Panama, India, China and Kenya.
Copa-Cogeca, representing European farmers and European agri-cooperatives has taken the opportunity of the International Year of Biodiversity to showcase the commitment of the agricultural sector to preserve biodiversity, herein by presenting concrete examples of how the interests of farmers can be aligned with biodiversity goals. Real life examples from all over Europe provided by Copa-Cogeca’s member organisations have been assembled in this brochure. They show how agriculture creates biodiversity and reveal: a) that our cultural landscape and in particular many of the most valuable habitats rely on agriculture; b) that efficient and productive agricultural land use, ensuring a sufficient income for farmers, can be brought in line with nature conservation objectives; c) that farmers are prepared to adapt their farming methods to enhance biodiversity and that ecoinnovation can contribute to this; d) that farmers need financial as well as non-material support to better align their economic interests with biodiversity targets.
Flyer of the FAO's report "The State of Food Insecurity in the World - 2008". This report raises awareness about global hunger issues, discusses underlying causes of hunger and malnutrition and monitors progress towards hunger reduction targets established at the 1996 World Food Summit and the Millennium Summit. The publication is targeted at a wide audience, including policy makers, international organizations, academic institutions and the general public with a general interest in linkages between food security, human and economic development.
The "State of Food Insecurity in the World 2008" represents FAO’s ninth progress report on world hunger since the 1996 World Food Summit (WFS). In previous editions, FAO has expressed deep concern over the lack of progress in reducing the number of hungry people in the world, which has remained persistently high. This year’s report focuses on high food prices, which are having a serious impact on the poorest populations in the world, drastically reducing their already low purchasing power. High food prices have increased levels of food deprivation, while placing tremendous pressure on achieving internationally agreed goals on hunger by 2015. This report also examines how high food prices present an opportunity to relaunch smallholder agriculture in the developing world. As discussed in the report, FAO’s undernourishment estimates for the period 1990–92 to 2003–05 have been revised on the basis of new standards for human energy requirements established by the United Nations (UN) and 2006 revisions of UN population data.
The main objective of this paper is to outline components and elements of sui generis Plant Variety Protection (PVP) systems and measures to protect traditional knowledge (TK) based on recent experiences in Asia. One of the main outcomes of this paper is the demonstration that developing countries have options with regards to PVP and the legal handling of TK. While some governments in Asia have already adopted patent or International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) standards for PVP, others may wish to develop unique systems which respond to the diverse needs of the country’s farmers and local communities. To date the response throughout Asia reflects its diversity.
This paper, the first of two African Centre for Biosafety publications on new foreign claims over African sorghum (the second being in progress), begins by providing some background information on the tremendous contribution made by sorghum developed by African farmers, to the sorghum industry in the United States. It then explains the problem of aluminium toxicity in acid soils, how the Tanzanian gene may help overcome this problem in sorghum and other crops, and commercial interest in using the gene in sorghum and GE crops and trees. In conclusion it discusses issues of equity and biopiracy raised by the patent claims.
The Community Biodiversity Development and Conservation Network (CBDC Network) is considered as the first network to advocate the central role of farmers in on-farm conservation and sustainable use of PGRs. The Network is composed of organizations working with farmers from 21 countries in Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia. These concrete field experiences have lent credibility to the Network to articulate its position on issues bearing on Farmers’ Rights. This publication seeks to articulate the concerns of farmers in Africa, Asia and Latin America and persuade all sectors to take appropriate practical action to arrest the loss of biodiversity, and promote the recognition, protection and needs of farmers.
Fact sheet issued on the occasion of the fourth meeting of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (COP-MOP 4), held in Bonn, Germany, from 12 to 16 May 2008. It focus on agricultural and agrobiodiversity topics, presenting a number of considerations on climate change, agricultural investment and innovations, biofuels and governance.
Magazine about agricultural biodiversity, with geneflow news, a feature section, and special reports on developing countries. A wide range of issues are covered such as gender aspects, farmers' role maintaining biodiversity and climate change.
This manual is intended for national programmes interested in supporting in situ conservation of agricultural biodiversity maintained on-farm by farmers. It was written to provide a range of actors, including Ministries of Agriculture and the Environment, universities, research and extension institutions, non-government organizations (NGOs), and community based groups, with a comprehensive view of factors involved in designing and implementing a programme to support the in situ conservation of crop genetic diversity on-farm. This guide is geared to give national programmes basic technical skills and tools to build institutional capacity and partnerships to implement an on-farm conservation programme. It discusses the information necessary and the practical steps for the implementation of on-farm conservation, as well as the importance of such an initiative.