|Last updated: 10/12/2013|
Throughout history, humanity has suffered from famine. Its causes are multiple and stem, on a case by case basis, from certain human activities, such as war, ethnic, religious and tribal conflicts, as well as bad climate and natural disasters, like droughts, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Another danger is genetic uniformity. During the last two centuries, as a consequence of the agricultural and industrial development and the progressive unification of cultural and eating habits, accentuated more recently due to the globalization and interdependence process, the number of crops and the diversity within them has been progressively reduced.
This book touches upon wide-ranging issues, such as international food policies and governance, economic and social aspects of food and seed trade, conservation and sustainable use of agricultural biodiversity, hunger alleviation, ecological concerns, consumer protection, fairness and equity between nations and among generations, plant breeding techniques and climate change adaptation. It provides for an extensive overview of the ITPGRFA negotiating and implementation process, undertaken by the stakeholders themselves. The authors identified challenges faced by the ITPGRFA and its community of stakeholders during this new and exciting phase of implementation, and explained the different interests and views of the major players in the global food chain.
The Multilateral System of the FAO Treaty (MLS) is exemplary. In order to promote conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, it establishes a global approach of simplified access to these resources and sharing of benefits from their utilization. This article analyzes the organizational structure of the MLS with the aim of unveiling concrete lessons for a possible system of global management of genetic diversity of a global importance and value based on access and benefit sharing (ABS). The underlying goal of such a system would be to promote conservation and sustainability of such genetic diversity.
The demand for extending intellectual property protection to agriculture in developing countries has met with counterclaims for granting farmers. rights. Developing countries are currently attempting to fulfil these demands by evolving new IPR regimes that simultaneously protect the rights of breeders and farmers. What are the possible implications of establishing such a system of multiple rights on the utilization and exchange of genetic resources among various actors? Could the attempt to distribute ownership rights to various stakeholders pose the threat of anticommons,. where resources are underutilized due to multiple ownership? The answers to these questions have important implications for the future of agricultural growth in developing countries.
The Community Biodiversity Development and Conservation and Biodiversity Use and Conservation in Asia Programme (CBDC-BUCAP) aims to strengthen the capacity of farmers to manage their plant genetic resources (PGR) and to secure their local seed systems through conservation, crop improvement and sustainable utilization. The Southeast Asia Regional Initiatives for Community Empowerment (SEARICE) is the regional coordinator of the CBDC-BUCAP program which is being implemented in the fi ve rice-growing countries of Bhutan, Lao PDR, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. At the end of 2008, the CBDC-BUCAP Program has made a signifi cant contribution to the conservation and development of PGR diversity, particularly in terms of building farmers’ capacity to select and develop varieties that meet their needs and preferences.
This paper focuses on five international treaties that determine and direct decisions and courses of action of member-countries insofar as activities and principles relating to the conservation, development and use of plant genetic resources and farmers’ rights are concerned. Further, this paper goes on to survey current policies and legislation in five countries, namely, Bhutan, Lao, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, that were put in place to comply with the abovementioned treaties.
This study provides an analysis of the issues, options and associated challenges in onfarm management of plant diversity and in situ conservation of crop wild relatives (CWR), particularly in developing countries. At the national level, development of landraces (LR) and CWR conservation strategies is an option, while taking into account local needs and indigenous knowledge of farmers and providing the necessary resources for long term commitment. At its core would be a national network of conservation sites to maintain LR and CWR diversity. At the international level, a call to establish a global network for the in situ conservation of the CWR diversity of crops important for food security is reiterated.
New and complex problems have to be faced in developing workable rules and regulations which, on the one hand honour the rights of farmers and states on their genetic resources, while on the other hand promote conservation and use of such resources in the interest of global food production now and in the future. The present report reviews existing legal systems concerned with biological materials and explores to what extent identity and origin of PGRFA can be established.
Artículo de la "Revista Recursos Naturales y Ambiente". El desarrollo de un sistema de información global sobre recursos fitogenéticos en consonancia con el Artículo 17 del Tratado Internacional sobre los Recursos Fitogenéticos para la Alimentación y la Agricultura, podría avanzar con más rapidez, sobre todo para la comunidad de bancos de germoplasma, debido a la rápida evolución de las tecnologías de la información. El objetivo de este artículo es demostrar la viabilidad de tal plataforma tomando como modelo la Infraestructura Mundial de Información sobre Biodiversidad (GBIF). Además, se proponen opciones prácticas para que los bancos de germoplasma en América Latina y el Caribe puedan unirse a esta iniciativa.
Artículo de la "Revista Recursos Naturales y Ambiente". En 1996, la Comunidad Andina (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú y Venezuela) fue el primer bloque de integración regional que aprobó legislación con respecto al acceso a los recursos genéticos y el reparto equitativo de beneficios (ABS). A través de los años, la Decisión 391 sobre un régimen común de acceso a los recursos genéticos se ha convertido en un hito y referente importante en la discusión del ABS. Con la adopción y la entrada en vigencia del Tratado Internacional sobre los Recursos Fitogenéticos para la Alimentación y la Agricultura, los países andinos se encuentran con el reto de resolver qué normativa es aplicable al acceso a los recursos fitogenéticos para la alimentación y la agricultura, especialmente aquellos cubiertos por el sistema multilateral del Tratado. Este artículo discute y explora algunos de los temas relacionados con la puesta en práctica y la aplicabilidad de la Decisión 391 y del Tratado Internacional.