|Last updated: 27/03/2015|
A través de la Resolución, Órgano Rector agradeció a las Partes Contratantes y a las instituciones internacionales que habían notificado al Secretario sobre los recursos fitogenéticos para la alimentación y la agricultura (RFAA) que se encuentran en el Sistema Multilateral (SML) y las instó a seguir actualizando su información a medida que esté disponible.
Par le biais de la Résolution, l’Organe directeur a remercié les Parties contractantes et les Institutions internationales qui avaient informé le Secrétaire à propos des ressources phytogénétiques pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture (RPAA) qui sont dans le Système Multilatéral, et les a exhortées à continuer de mettre à jour leurs informations lorsqu’elles sont disponibles
Through Resolution 1/2013 the Governing Body requested “all Contracting Parties that have not yet done so to urgently notify the Secretary on their plant genetic resources for food and agriculture that are in the Multilateral System, in accordance with Article 11.2 of the Treaty, including information on how such material is available”.
Throughout history, humanity has suffered from famine. Its causes are multiple and stem, on a case by case basis, from certain human activities, such as war, ethnic, religious and tribal conflicts, as well as bad climate and natural disasters, like droughts, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Another danger is genetic uniformity. During the last two centuries, as a consequence of the agricultural and industrial development and the progressive unification of cultural and eating habits, accentuated more recently due to the globalization and interdependence process, the number of crops and the diversity within them has been progressively reduced.
This book touches upon wide-ranging issues, such as international food policies and governance, economic and social aspects of food and seed trade, conservation and sustainable use of agricultural biodiversity, hunger alleviation, ecological concerns, consumer protection, fairness and equity between nations and among generations, plant breeding techniques and climate change adaptation. It provides for an extensive overview of the ITPGRFA negotiating and implementation process, undertaken by the stakeholders themselves. The authors identified challenges faced by the ITPGRFA and its community of stakeholders during this new and exciting phase of implementation, and explained the different interests and views of the major players in the global food chain.
The Multilateral System of the FAO Treaty (MLS) is exemplary. In order to promote conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, it establishes a global approach of simplified access to these resources and sharing of benefits from their utilization. This article analyzes the organizational structure of the MLS with the aim of unveiling concrete lessons for a possible system of global management of genetic diversity of a global importance and value based on access and benefit sharing (ABS). The underlying goal of such a system would be to promote conservation and sustainability of such genetic diversity.
The demand for extending intellectual property protection to agriculture in developing countries has met with counterclaims for granting farmers. rights. Developing countries are currently attempting to fulfil these demands by evolving new IPR regimes that simultaneously protect the rights of breeders and farmers. What are the possible implications of establishing such a system of multiple rights on the utilization and exchange of genetic resources among various actors? Could the attempt to distribute ownership rights to various stakeholders pose the threat of anticommons,. where resources are underutilized due to multiple ownership? The answers to these questions have important implications for the future of agricultural growth in developing countries.
The Community Biodiversity Development and Conservation and Biodiversity Use and Conservation in Asia Programme (CBDC-BUCAP) aims to strengthen the capacity of farmers to manage their plant genetic resources (PGR) and to secure their local seed systems through conservation, crop improvement and sustainable utilization. The Southeast Asia Regional Initiatives for Community Empowerment (SEARICE) is the regional coordinator of the CBDC-BUCAP program which is being implemented in the fi ve rice-growing countries of Bhutan, Lao PDR, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. At the end of 2008, the CBDC-BUCAP Program has made a signifi cant contribution to the conservation and development of PGR diversity, particularly in terms of building farmers’ capacity to select and develop varieties that meet their needs and preferences.
This paper focuses on five international treaties that determine and direct decisions and courses of action of member-countries insofar as activities and principles relating to the conservation, development and use of plant genetic resources and farmers’ rights are concerned. Further, this paper goes on to survey current policies and legislation in five countries, namely, Bhutan, Lao, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, that were put in place to comply with the abovementioned treaties.
This study provides an analysis of the issues, options and associated challenges in onfarm management of plant diversity and in situ conservation of crop wild relatives (CWR), particularly in developing countries. At the national level, development of landraces (LR) and CWR conservation strategies is an option, while taking into account local needs and indigenous knowledge of farmers and providing the necessary resources for long term commitment. At its core would be a national network of conservation sites to maintain LR and CWR diversity. At the international level, a call to establish a global network for the in situ conservation of the CWR diversity of crops important for food security is reiterated.