|Last updated: 23/05/2013|
Plant breeding started about 9000 to 11,000 years ago when man started with the domestication of wild plants. Farmers and growers tried to improve their crops with desired traits through trial and error. The evolutionary theories of Darwin and the genetic experiments of Mendel that were developed at the end of the 19th century gave a further impulse to plant breeding and made it more efficient. During the 20th century breeding science was further improved through knowledge of genetics, plant pathology and entomology (Bruins, 2009). The development of hybrids (starting around 1920) was the first technology in plant breeding to offer better plant varieties to growers and farmers.
This document, based on the Governing Body Resolutions and expression of needs by the Contracting Parties, provides the Committee with those elements that could be considered useful for the elaboration of the Programme of Work on sustainable use of PGRFA (PoW).
The Secretary of the International Treaty has the honour to inform Contracting Parties of the launching by Syngenta Crop Protection AG (Syngenta) of a new e-licensing platform that generates contributions to the Benefit-sharing Fund of the International Treaty.
Proceedings of the CBDC's International Farmers' Technical Conference held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 11 to 13 February 2004. The three-day activity was guided by three themes: 1) Conserving Agricultural Biodiversity; 2) Modes of Technology Transfer Towards Agricultural Biodiversity Conservation; 3) Initiatives to Protect Farmer Innovations and Agricultural Biodiversity, along the CBDC agenda items. The IFTC also included an agricultural biodiversity fair in the form of exhibits featuring among others: agricultural (and cultural) diversity in the regions and/ or countries, CBDC products (processed food or goods) from agricultural biodiversity, farmer inventions and innovations, impacts of CBDC in the region and/ or country, policy issues and concerns, and advocacy work of farmers and CBDC institutions . This document presents the proceedings of the three-day IFTC activity which is divided into the three themes and the technofora.
Artículo de la "Revista Recursos Naturales y Ambiente". Este artículo analiza seis ejemplos de cómo determinados recursos fitogenéticos para la alimentación y la agricultura fueron utilizados en diversos países en trabajos de análisis, selección y mejoramiento genético con el fin de obtener variedades mejoradas que pudieran beneficiar a los agricultores y los consumidores. Los recursos fitogenéticos de estos ejemplos son: cacao, cratylia, frijol amarillo, chocho, yuca o mandioca y maíz híbrido. Los estudios demuestran la importancia de contar con acceso facilitado a la diversidad más amplia posible de los cultivos o forrajes objeto de estudio. Algunos de los casos demuestran que ciertos materiales no incluidos en el Anexo I del Tratado Internacional sobre los Recursos Fitogenéticos para la Alimentación y la Agricultura– y por lo tanto, no sujetos a las condiciones del sistema multilateral de acceso y distribución de beneficios del Tratado‑ son claves para la seguridad alimentaria en América Latina.
Plant breeding research and seed provision are vital industries that need to be fostered and stimulated. Plant breeding is important for food security at the local and global levels; the ability of adapted varieties to cope with environmental stresses contributes to strategies for sustainable agriculture, and the provision of productive options for commercial farming is essential for wider economic development. The twin challenges are first to understand the degree to which stronger IPRs in plant breeding can help stimulate these industries and second to determine whether the IPR systems for plant varieties that have been developed in industrialized countries can contribute to development objectives. This report is based on a field study of the impact of strengthened IPRs on the breeding industries in China, Colombia, India, Kenya, and Uganda. The analysis also makes use of secondary data and interviews with stakeholders from other countries.
This report provides a comprehensive overview of the international intellectual property system regulating plant varieties and the rights of plant breeders. It identifies the essential features of this system, including the policies supporting the grant of intellectual property rights (IPRs), the societal objectives in tension with IPRs, the institutions that have shaped the international intellectual property system, and the basic components contained in the relevant international treaties. The report explains in particular the different forms of legal protection required by international IPR agreements, including the system of plant breeders’ rights in the 1978 and 1991 UPOV Acts and the choice between patent and sui generis protection created by Article 27.3(b) of the TRIPs Agreement. Finally, the report explains the ways in which the international intellectual property system is on the cusp of significant change.
This report summarizes the presentations, discussions and recommendations of a workshop, co-hosted by the Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development, Ministry of Agriculture and the Norwegian Ministry for Agriculture and Food, that was held in Bogor, Indonesia, from 9-11 March 2010. The workshop was organized in order to provide an arena for informal discussions on the implementation of Non-Monetary Benefit Sharing in relation to the Treaty, as implementation and follow up have been somewhat lacking in this respect until now. Non-monetary benefit Sharing as it is dealt with under article 13 of the Treaty is related to the realization of Farmers' Rights since benefit sharing is also central to article 9 on Farmers' Rights.