|Last updated: 06/12/2013|
The purpose of this chapter is to provide a general analysis of the comments made by the authors of the book chapters in the ongoing implementation of the Treaty. The reader will have noticed that, on the one hand, many authors remain fairly optimistic about the Treaty and note that considerable progress has been achieved in a very short period of time, even beyond their initial expectation. On the other hand, some authors, while recognizing that the Treaty is a useful and flexible instrument, point at the risk that the lack of appropriate and quick decisions and actions to speed up the implementation process may lead to a decreased level of confidence in the general framework set up by the Treaty. Most of them recognize that it is now the moment to advance on its implementation.
As a multitude of studies have shown in the course of the past 30 years, global interdependence on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA) is nothing new, but merely a statement of fact. An often quoted FAO study dating from the year 1998 revealed the knowledge that only four crops (rice, wheat, sugar and maize) account for 65 per cent of the dietary intake worldwide (Palacios, 1998). This is the result of a lively system of global exchange and movements of crops over hundreds of years, paired with the fact that crop varieties, if they are not nurtured through human care, will be neglected and are eventually endangered in their existence.
Plant breeding started about 9000 to 11,000 years ago when man started with the domestication of wild plants. Farmers and growers tried to improve their crops with desired traits through trial and error. The evolutionary theories of Darwin and the genetic experiments of Mendel that were developed at the end of the 19th century gave a further impulse to plant breeding and made it more efficient. During the 20th century breeding science was further improved through knowledge of genetics, plant pathology and entomology (Bruins, 2009). The development of hybrids (starting around 1920) was the first technology in plant breeding to offer better plant varieties to growers and farmers.
Today, Africa remains the most disadvantaged continent of the world despite having abundant natural resources. This is due to a variety of reasons, both historical and contemporary. Poverty, malnutrition and poor health, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, affect a large proportion of the people. These poor conditions are intrinsically linked with the access to food and to crops necessary for subsistence farming. For this reason, Africa has placed a lot of hope in the negotiation and implementation of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (the Treaty or ITPGRFA).
The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture is a pivotal piece of recent legislation, providing a route map for the use of such resources for sustainable agriculture and food security. This book explains the different interests and views at stake between all players in the global food chain. It touches upon many issues such as international food governance and policy, economic aspects of food and seed trade, conservation and sustainable use of food and agricultural biodiversity, hunger alleviation, ecological concerns, consumer protection, fairness and equity across nations and between generations, plant-breeding techniques and socio-economic benefits related to food local economies
This document summarizes the previous advice given by the Committee in 2012, including on possible processes or practical approaches to ensure the harmonious implementation of the Nagoya Protocol with the Multilateral System, and, in accordance with the request of the Committee, re-submits the issue of model provisions that may be inserted in national ABS legislation, for the further consideration by the Committee.
The document describes the recent developments in relation to the Convention on Biological Diversity, like the joint workshop held during the Second Meeting of the Intergovernmental Committee on the Nagoya Protocol in July 2012, and the developments in relation to the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, in particular the Ad Hoc Technical Working Group on Access and Benefit-Sharing for Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture held in Svalbard in September 2012.
The Secretary of the International Treaty has the honour to inform Contracting Parties of the launching by Syngenta Crop Protection AG (Syngenta) of a new e-licensing platform that generates contributions to the Benefit-sharing Fund of the International Treaty.
C’est mon plaisir de vous informer qu'un atelier de renforcement des capacités sur l'accès et le partage des avantages aura lieu les 30 Juin et le 1 Juillet 2012, au ‘Vigyan Bhawan Convention Center’ de Nouvelle Delhi, Inde. L'atelier sera précédé de la deuxième réunion du Comité intergouvernemental sur le Protocole de Nagoya sur l'accès et le partage des avantages, 2-6 Juillet 2012.